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NCT03451994Documentation of Clinical Trial Data and Procedures Identifier:   NCT0345199 (secondary retrospective analysis)
Principal investigators: primary analysis:  Michael Phillips, secondary retrospective analysis:   Irene Gabashvili
​Materials and Methods:
​Software tools & Analysis Methods:

Downloadable Data, Blogs and Research Papers

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The extent of oxidative stress range from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino acids. Oxidative stress, characterized by an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of oxidants, leads to disruption of redox signaling and physiological function. Hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and some ketones are produced in the body as a result of oxidative stress, which occurs when increased quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS), originating mainly from exogenous factors such as pollution, radiation, and cigarette smoke, are produced in the mitochondria. The body reacts to this by activating the detoxification process, in which the liver enzyme cytochrome p450 catalyzes the addition of an oxygen atom to the foreign compound, thus turning it to a more soluble substance in wateran alcohol and, as byproducts, aldehydes are formed. Other liver enzymes may also alter the concentration of the VOCs, such as ADH, which turns alcohols to aldehydes, and ALDH, which oxidizes aldehydes into carboxylic acids.
Exogenous sources of VOCs include cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, air pollution, and radiation. The reactive nature of these exogenous molecules can cause peroxidative damage to biological organelles, stimulating cancer and other diseases. 


(download PDF
Breath mass ion biomarkers of breast cancer.
Phillips M, Cataneo RN, Lebauer C, Mundada M, Saunders C.
Journal of Breath Research (19 Dec. 2016)

(download PDF
Rapid Point-Of-Care Breath Test for Biomarkers of Breast Cancer and Abnormal Mammograms.
Phillips M, Beatty JD, Cataneo RN, Huston J, Kaplan PD, Lalisang RI, Lambin P, Lobbes MBI, Mundada M, Pappas N, Patel U.
PLOS ONE (Mar. 5, 2014)

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Point-of-care breath test for biomarkers of active pulmonary tuberculosis.
Phillips M, Basa-Dalay V, Blais J, Bothamley G, Chaturvedi A, Modi KD, Pandya M, Natividad MPR, Patel U, Ramraje NN, Schmitt P, Udwadia ZF
Tuberculosis (May 29, 2012)

(download PDF)
Volatile organic compounds of lung cancer and possible biochemical pathways. 
Hakim M, Broza YY, Barash O, Peled N, Phillips M, Amann A, Haick H. Chemical reviews. 2012 Sep 19;112(11):5949-66.

(download PDF
Volatile biomarkers in the breath of women with breast cancer.
Phillips M, Cataneo RN, Saunders C, Hope P, Schmitt P, and Wai J .
Journal of Breath Research (Mar. 2, 2010)

(download PDF
Breath biomarkers of active pulmonary tuberculosis.
Phillips M, Basa-Dalay V, Bothamley G, Cataneo RN, Lam PK, Natividad MPR, Schmitt P, and Wai J
Tuberculosis (Mar. 2, 2010)

(download PDF
Volatile biomarkers of pulmonary tuberculosis in the breath.
Phillips M, Cataneo RN, Condos R, Erickson GAR, Greenberg J, La Bombardi V, Munawar MI, and Tietje O
Tuberculosis (2007); 87: 44-52.

(download PDF
Volatile markers of pulmonary tuberculosis in the breath.
Phillips M, Cataneo RN, Condos R, Ring Erickson GA, Greenberg J, and La Bombardi V
European Respiratory Journal (2004); 24: Suppl. 48, 467s